Is Alpaca wool more or less itchy than Merino?
Published September 23 , 2020
Why Use Wool for Outdoor Clothing?
These days, most people agree that wool is one of the best fibre options for outdoor clothing. It is warm but also has thermal regulating properties, it is light, breathable, sweat wicking and is naturally odour, wrinkle, and UV resistant. But an issue for most people is that wool is itchy, which is a major problem if you are using it next to your skin, for example as a wool base layer. Merino wool solves this problem for a lot of people, but some still find it itchy and don’t get on with merino shirts or base layers.
Is Alpaca Better Than Merino?
Alpaca fibre, being a wool like merino, has all of the same technical properties, although it has a unique “semi-hollow” structure (technically referred to as “partial medullation”), which gives it a performance boost. Individual alpaca fibres can vary greatly depending on where they are found on the alpaca’s body, the individual animal and the environmental conditions, which you can read more about here. At Arms of Andes, we use 100% royal alpaca wool - the finest and softest of the fibre types - for our shirts, base layers, bottom layers and accessories. There are key differences between merino and alpaca wool of the royal category, which help alpaca to be less itchy. We take a look at the details below.
What Makes Wool Itchy?
Three factors can make wool feel itchy on the skin: the scales on the fibre, lanolin content and the fineness of the fibre. Let's take a look at each in more detail.
1) Surface Scales on the Fibre
If you look at wool or hair under a microscope, you can see that the surface of each fibre isn’t completely smooth. Take a look at the photos of alpaca and merino fibres to the left, taken through a microscope. You can see tiny scales on the surface of each fibre, and it is these that cause a prickly or itchy feeling when the wool touches the skin. The photo of a merino fibre shows more defined scales, occurring at smaller intervals and protruding quite significantly from the surface. On the other hand, the alpaca fiber looks smoother as the scales are smaller, less defined and are flatter against the surface of the fibre.
Because alpaca wool fibres do have scales, you could potentially find it itchy. However, most people find merino wool is more itchy than alpaca, because the scales stick out more and therefore irritate the skin more.
2) Lanolin in the Wool
Lanolin is a wax found in wools, like merino. It is produced by pores in the sheep’s skin to lubricate each wool fibre as it grows and protect the animal from the elements. However, this wax causes an allergic reaction in a lot of people, provoking rashes and severe itchiness when it touches the skin. Merino wool is considered less itchy than other sheep’s wool as it has been treated to remove the lanolin: but it takes loads of chemicals and water to remove this itchy wax. Alpacas, on the other hand, produce little or no lanolin (any produced is easily washed out) so is considered a hypoallergenic wool.
3) Fineness of the Fibre
How fine a fibre is – whether it is natural or synthetic – influences how soft a garment made from it will feel. Fineness is determined by measuring the diameter of a fibre, which is done in microns (one thousandth of a millimetre). The higher the micron number, the thicker the fiber is, and the more you will feel it against your skin.
- Merino wool fibres with diameters of 19-21 microns are usually used for outdoor apparel.
- Baby alpaca wool fibres used in most clothing average around 19 to 20 microns in diameter.
- The royal alpaca wool Arms of Andes uses in our garments averages 18 to 18.5 microns in diameter.
The finer the fibre, the softer it feels. So, if you buy an alpaca base layer using fibres of 18 microns, it will feel softer than a merino wool base layer.
To sum up, royal alpaca is less itchy than merino wool due to:
Alpaca wool fibers have smoother scales that make it feel less itchy than merino.
Alpaca contains almost no lanolin and is considered hypoallergenic.
Very fine fibres: 18 to 18.5 Microns
We use the finest alpaca wool called Royal Alpaca, with diameters of under 19 microns.